Basic Organic Nomenclature

An Introduction

Dave Woodcock,
Associate Professor Emeritus UBC (Okanagan)
©1996,2000, 2008

3. Functional Groups with Prefix Only (i)

Index


Most functional groups are named by using either a suffix or a prefix. However a few functional groups are only named as prefixes, which means that the rules already learned for using prefixes can immediately be adopted for these such compounds.

The following table shows a set of functional groups named only as prefixes, and the corresponding prefix.

Functional groups expressed only as prefixes.
Functional GroupIUPAC PrefixFamily Name
Ffluorofluoroalkane
Clchlorochloroalkane
Brbromobromoalkane
Iiodoiodoalkane
NO2nitronitroalkane
N3azidoazidoalkane
OR*alkoxyalkoxyalkane (aka ether)

* In this function, the R represents an alkyl group and is the only one of these groups which needs to be discussed further.


Examples of the use of these prefixes (except alkoxy)

Examples of Functional groups expressed only as prefixes.
CompoundIUPAC NameMolecular Model
CH3FFluoromethane
CH3NO2Nitromethane
CH3CH2N3Azidoethane
CH2Cl2Dichloromethane
CF3CCl2H 2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
2-Iodobutane
Bromocyclohexane
2-Chlorospiro[4.5]decane

When alkyl branches and or more than one group named by a prefix are present in the same molecule, the several prefixes are intermixed and listed in alphabetical order.

Examples:


3-Ethyl-2-iodo-4-methylpentane


trans-1-Iodo-2-methylcyclohexane

Self-Assessment Problems - After next page
Review Bicycloalkanes (ii)

Next page : Alkoxyalkanes (Ethers)

Index


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